Who should not be vaccinated against HPV?

It is very common to get HPV during sex. HPV virus can also cause many dangerous diseases. Therefore, vaccination against HPV is therefore very important, but are there people who should not get the HPV vaccine? Can a patient with genital warts get the HPV vaccine? Similarly, can people who have had sex get the HPV vaccine?

1. Frequently asked questions about HPV vaccination?

1.1 Can I get the HPV vaccine if I’ve had sex?

What is HPV? Can I get the HPV vaccine if I’ve had sex? The answer is quite possibly.

The HPV vaccine can protect us against HPV 16 and HPV 18. These two types cause 70% of cervical cancers in humans. Of course, they can also reduce the risk of other types of cancer elsewhere caused by these two types. In all sexually active people, they will be infected with HPV at least once in their lifetime.


HPV virus illustration
Illustration HPV virus.

There are 3 types of HPV vaccines, including:

  • Cervarix: Prevents 2 types of HPV, HPV 16 and 18. This type is used at the age of 9 and older.

Bivalent vaccine against HPV
Bivalent vaccine against HPV.
  • Quadruple (Gardasil): Prevents 4 types of HPV: HPV 6, HPV 11, HPV 16 and HPV 18. The age of use is 9 – 26 years old.
  • Cuu Cuu (Gardasil 9): Prevents 9 types of HPV, including 4 types of quadrivalent vaccine, along with HPV 31, HPV 33, HPV 45, HPV 52, and HPV 58. Age of use is 9-45 years old.

Because one vaccine can prevent many different strains of HPV virus. In the case of sexually active patients, it is extremely rare for a subject to be infected with all strains of HPV that the vaccine protects against. Therefore, it is possible to get vaccinated after having sex.

See also: HPV infection in some oral diseases

1.2 Can HPV infection be vaccinated?

The answer is yes.

The reason is quite similar to the question above. Rarely does a subject become infected with all the strains of HPV that the vaccine protects against. Therefore, the World Health Organization also recommends that HPV vaccination is possible without first having an HPV test.

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1.3 Can I get the HPV vaccine if I have genital warts?

Unlike the 2 questions above: “Can I have HPV if I have had sex?” and “Can I get vaccinated if I have HPV?“. The condition that you have genital warts means that the virus is present and strong enough to attack the patient’s body. This raises concerns that the HPV vaccine will not be effective in the case of patients with genital warts.

But when you look back at the reasons for still getting the HPV vaccine in the two cases above, it’s easy to see that even if you have genital warts, you can still get the HPV vaccine.

When you have genital warts, you are infected with a low-risk strain of HPV virus (HPV 6, 11 …). And the three current HPV vaccines mainly prevent high-risk HPV that causes cancer (HPV 16, 18).

Even if you have cervical cancer, there are some benefits to getting vaccinated against HPV. Although in subjects who have had sex, infected with HPV, have genital warts, the effectiveness of the vaccine is no longer as expected.

1.4 Notes

Even if you have had the HPV vaccine, you should still be screened for cervical cancer.

After getting the bivalent HPV vaccine (Cervarix) you can reduce your chances of getting cervical cancer. But there are still other high-risk strains that Cervarix doesn’t cover. Therefore, getting vaccinated against HPV does not mean that you will never get cervical cancer. To minimize your risk of contracting the HPV virus, in addition to getting vaccinated, you should practice safe sex:

  • There should be only one sexual partner (and so should the other).
  • Do not share personal items with employees.
  • Use condoms when having sex.

2. Who should not get the HPV vaccine?

Most people should get the HPV vaccine, especially at a young age. Young people have a better immune response to HPV vaccination than older people.

People who have never had sex and have never had HPV benefit more from the HPV vaccine.

The protective efficacy of HPV vaccine in female subjects <25 years old, never infected with HPV is up to 100%.

In people aged 29 to 45 years, HPV vaccination can still be done. However, it is advisable to consult a doctor for advice on which vaccines have a clear benefit.

  • People with a history of allergies

Should be specifically consulted by a doctor, tested for the risk of vaccine allergy. There are many types of allergies, some are mild, can be repeated injections. However, there are also types of allergies that must be absolutely avoided and must not be repeated, for example: Anaphylaxis.

  • Pregnant
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The HPV vaccine is not yet approved for use in pregnant women. Many studies now show that vaccination does not harm the fetus when vaccinated during pregnancy. However, the evidence for this is still not very convincing. Therefore, more studies are needed to authorize the use of the HPV vaccine in pregnant women.

A pregnant woman should not receive any vaccine until the pregnancy has ended. That is, even if the subject has received 1-2 doses of vaccine, and is currently pregnant, delay the injection until the end of the pregnancy.

3. Notes before vaccination against HPV

The HPV vaccine can cause certain side effects, but these side effects are not common. There is no need to eat or drink anything before and after receiving the HPV vaccine.

For the following cases, we need to consult a doctor before vaccination:

  • Fever.
  • Having a history of serious medical conditions such as: heart failure, liver failure, kidney failure.
  • Have an acute illness such as an infection.

Most people infected with HPV do not experience any serious side effects. Mild and moderate side effects may occasionally be experienced. These include: (2)

  • Swollen, painful injection area: Very common manifestation after injection.
  • Mild fever. Very rarely, fever is accompanied by chills.
  • Headache.
  • Tired, lethargic.
  • Myalgia and arthralgia are the two most common symptoms in Asian populations following HPV vaccination.
  • Vomiting.
  • Nausea.
  • Stomachache.
  • Diarrhea.

Contact your doctor if you experience unusual symptoms following vaccination, especially if these symptoms persist.

There are doubts that the HPV vaccine causes infertility. But many large studies in 2013, 2014, 2016 on the HPV vaccine show that this vaccine has a very rare rate of major side effects. Just as the HPV vaccine can improve fertility, especially in people infected with sexually transmitted diseases.

Scientists have proven the safety of the HPV vaccine after a long time of testing.

Some other notes

The HPV vaccine is the best way to prevent HPV. In addition, there are a number of other measures to help reduce the possibility of HPV infection – cervical cancer, which can be combined with the vaccine. Including:

  • Using condoms: Correct use of condoms does not significantly reduce the risk of HPV infection. But using condoms clearly reduces the risk of cervical cancer.
  • For women: Screening for HPV, cervical cancer through routine routine tests. For PAP testing, subjects should take it every 3 years. For HPV DNA testing, it should be done every 5 years.
  • Maintain a healthy diet: A nutritious diet can reduce the risk of cervical cancer.
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Almost everyone should get the HPV vaccine, except for people with a history of allergies or in pregnant women.

Can I get the HPV vaccine if I have genital warts? Okay.

Can you get an HPV shot if you’ve had sex? Entirely possible.

The HPV vaccine has many minor side effects, which usually go away on their own.

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