What is an electrolyte disorder? Causes, symptoms and treatment

Electrolytes play a very important role in the human body. Electrolyte disorder Currently, it is a health-related issue that attracts many people’s attention. So what is an electrolyte disorder? When the body is electrolyte disturbances What treatments are needed? Articles below Ocany will work with you to learn about the above issue.

Role of electrolytes in the human body

Electrolytes are substances that can be dissolved in fluids. This substance can produce ions with negative and positive charges. These minerals are very important for the body because they help with nerve and muscle related functions. Especially helps to keep the balance of body fluids, blood pressure and blood pH.

Electrolyte disorder is a common disease in people who have an imbalanced diet (eating too light, eating too salty, abusing soft drinks, energy drinks …) who are ill or have systemic diseases. This includes the disturbance of the two most important minerals in the electrolyte group, sodium and potassium.

Electrolytes play a very important role in the body

Electrolytes play a very important role in the body

What is an electrolyte disorder?

Many people wonder what an electrolyte disorder is? So in this content we will answer this question together.

Electrolyte disturbance is a condition in which electrolyte levels in the body are too high or too low. Electrolytes in the body need to be maintained in balance for the organs to function properly. Otherwise, critical systems may be affected. Severe electrolyte imbalances can cause dangerous health problems such as coma, seizures, and cardiac arrest.

What is an electrolyte disorder?

What is an electrolyte disorder?

Analysis of causes leading to electrolyte disturbances

When the body is deprived of fluids because of diarrhea, vomiting, burns or excessive sweating, electrolyte disturbances occur. In addition, this phenomenon is also caused by the side effects of some drugs or patients with chronic diseases, acute kidney disease. In general, there are many causes of electrolyte disturbances. We will analyze some of the typical reasons below.

Sodium Disorders

Sodium is abundant in table salt, helps our body balance acid and base, maintain plasma volume and normal cell function. Thanks to the frequent exchange of sodium in and out of cells, this mineral is constantly being renewed. In a normal state, the concentration of sodium in the blood is in the range of 135 – 145 mmol/l. When the concentration exceeds the above average, hypernatremia occurs.

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Patients with hypernatremia often have symptoms such as weakness, thirst, loss of appetite, or feeling nauseous. Too much sodium can worsen seizure symptoms, even bleeding around the brain.

However, when sodium in the blood is reduced, it will not be good for the body. The phenomena that help you to recognize the lack of sodium in the body are thirst, rapid heart rate and low blood pressure when standing up… Some causes of this condition are due to adrenal insufficiency, the patient suffers from kidney failure. Loss of salt too much, have kidney failure, the patient is taking diuretics.

Potassium Disorders

Similar to sodium, potassium is also an important mineral, especially for the cardiovascular system. Potassium is closely related to heart rate, conduction and excitability of the heart muscle. In addition, potassium is also an element that helps balance water and electrolytes, maintaining the functioning of the digestive system, muscles and urinary tract.

Potassium disorders can put the body in danger

Potassium disorders can put the body in danger

Not only that, potassium aids in protein production and converts glucose into glycogen (the energy source that helps maintain all bodily functions). Normally, the concentration of potassium in the blood will be around 3.5 – 5 mmol/l.

People with hyperkalemia are often caused by causes such as anaphylaxis, severe burns, severe trauma, kidney failure or adrenal insufficiency. Hyperkalemia is quite common in cases of electrolyte disturbances. It can cause death if not detected in time.

In the case of people, hypokalemia may be the result of K+ ions moving into cells and losing potassium. Potassium deficiency also occurs in people who often fast, take diuretics or are treated with cortisol for a long time.

To identify a person with hypokalemia, can be based on the following symptoms: Abdominal bloating, diarrhea, fatigue, slow heart rate and some damage to other organs, typically the kidneys.

We can increase potassium by adding foods such as sweet potatoes, bananas, radishes, etc. to our daily diet. However, like sodium, potassium disorders also cause many disadvantages for the patient’s body.

Calcium disorders

Hypercalcemia is caused by hyperthyroidism, cancer, kidney disease, taking too much calcium and antacids. An inherited genetic disorder called hypocalciuria, an inherited genetic disorder, is also a cause of high blood calcium. There are also a number of causes of hypocalcaemia due to kidney failure, thyroid disorders, vitamin D deficiency or the use of heparin drugs too much.

Chlorosis disorder

Chlorine disorders also cause patients to have hypochloremia or hyperchloremia. It is caused by severe dehydration, kidney failure or other electrolyte disturbances, especially hypokalemia and hyponatremia.

Kidney diseases are often the cause of electrolyte disturbances

Kidney diseases are often the cause of electrolyte disturbances

Magnesium disorder

Magnesium disorders are quite rare, however they often occur in people with Addison’s disease. The main symptoms include fatigue, muscle weakness, weight loss, low blood pressure, sometimes darkening of the skin in the exposed area, or end-stage kidney disease.

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Hypomagnesemia can also be caused by chronic alcoholism, malnutrition, digestive disorders, chronic diarrhea, excessive sweating, the use of medications such as diuretics and cyclosporin along with some other antibiotics.

Phosphate disorder

People with hyperphosphatemia are mainly due to fractures, intestinal obstruction, hypoparathyroidism or kidney disease. Hypophosphataemia is caused by hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, trauma, chronic alcoholism, severe burns, kidney disease, malnutrition, prolonged use of diuretics, etc.

Subjects at risk of electrolyte disturbances

Any of us can experience an electrolyte disorder. Some people who are at high risk are people with kidney disease. Because this subject’s kidneys are no longer able to filter minerals like other healthy kidneys. In addition, there are also some factors that cause electrolyte disturbances such as: People who use alcohol heavily, people with cirrhosis of the liver, heart failure, congestive heart failure, trauma from burns or fractures, etc. In this case, you need to take measures to prevent electrolyte disorders as well as recognize signs of electrolyte disorders for early detection and timely treatment.

Signs that the patient is experiencing electrolyte disturbances

With mild electrolyte disturbances, there may be no symptoms for you to notice. This disorder will usually be discovered when the patient has a routine blood test. In cases where electrolyte disturbances become more severe, symptoms may manifest. An imbalance of each type of electrolyte can cause a range of different symptoms. However, some of the most common general symptoms include:

There are many signs for you to recognize an electrolyte disorder

There are many signs for you to recognize an electrolyte disorder

  • Dark urine is also a sign that you are dehydrated.
  • Arrhythmia, fatigue, convulsions, muscle pain, headache, and mood swings.
  • Nausea or digestive upset (diarrhea or constipation).

When you have the above signs and suspect that you have an electrolyte disorder, you should immediately go to the nearest facility for examination.

Treatment of electrolyte disorders

The treatment of electrolyte disorders depends on the type of disorder the patient is having. The main treatment is to restore the electrolyte balance of the body by the following methods:

  • Intravenous infusion of electrolytes, usually used in cases of severe dehydration due to vomiting or diarrhea. Medicines may be given intravenously to help remove excess electrolytes from the blood and body fluids.
  • Hemodialysis can remove waste and toxic substances from the body. This measure is often applied in cases of electrolyte disturbances due to kidney disease or kidney damage.
  • Using functional foods helps to supplement the mineral deficiency in the body in a short time.
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After the electrolyte disturbance has been treated, the doctor will continue to treat the main cause of the condition to prevent the risk of electrolyte imbalance in the future.

Electrolyte water can be directly infused into the body when the patient is severely dehydrated

Electrolyte water can be directly infused into the body when the patient is severely dehydrated

Thus, through the content of the article on Ocany, you will learn about the disorder of electrolyte imbalance. Hopefully with the above knowledge, Ocany has helped you learn the causes of electrolyte disorders. From there, you will have an effective way to overcome and treat the disease.

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