The Importance of Clean Water: Ensuring the Quality of Your Water Source

Water is one of the essential resources in production, livestock farming, agriculture, processing, and, most importantly, in human life. We require clean water for cooking and daily activities. However, natural sources of clean water on Earth are incredibly scarce, leading to the development of various filtering methods. But is the water we use truly clean? In this article, we will delve into the standards for clean water and explore methods for purifying water.

What is clean water, and what are its characteristics?

Clean water is transparent, odorless, tasteless, and contains beneficial minerals and microorganisms. It undergoes filtration to eliminate impurities, harmful bacteria, parasites, chemicals, and heavy metals.

According to the World Health Organization’s standards for clean water, the following criteria must be met for water used in daily life and cooking:

Number Parameter name Unit Permissible limit threshold
Parameters of group A
Microbial parameters
1 Coliform CFU/100 mL <3
2 E.Coli or Conform heat resistant CFU/100 mL <1
Sensory and inorganic parameters
3 Arsenic (As)(*) mg/L 0.01
4 Free residual chlorine(**) mg/L In the range of 0.2 – 1.0
5 Turbidity NTU 2
6 Color TCU 15
7 Taste Tasteless, scentless
8 pH Between 6.0-8.5
B group parameters
Microbial parameters
9 Golden Stabilizer

(Staphylococcus aureus)

CFU/ 100mL < 1
10 Green pus bacillus

(Ps. Aeruginosa)

CFU/ 100mL < 1
Inorganic parameters
11 Ammonium (NH3 and NH4+ in N) mg/L 0.3
12 Antimony (Sb) mg/L 0.02
13 Bari (Bs) mg/L 0.7
14 Bor is common to both Borate and Boric Acid (B) mg/L 0.3
15 Cadmium (Cd) mg/L 0.003
16 What (Lead) (Pb) mg/L 0.01
17 Permanganate index mg/L 2
18 Chloride (Cl-)(***) mg/L 250 (or 300)
19 Chromi (Cr) mg/L 0.05
20 Copper (Cuprum) (Cu) mg/L first
21 Hardness, in CaCO3 mg/L 300
22 Fluor (F) mg/L 1.5
23 Zinc (Zincum) (Zn) mg/L 2
24 Manganese (Mn) mg/L 0.1
25 Sodium (Na) mg/L 200
26 Aluminum (Aluminium) (Al) mg/L 0.2
27 Nickel (Ni) mg/L 0.07
28 Nitrates (NO3- in N) mg/L 2
29 Nitrite (NO2- in N) mg/L 0.05
30 Iron (Ferrum) (Fe) mg/L 0.3
31 Selenium (Se) mg/L 0.01
32 Sunphat mg/L 250
33 Sunfua mg/L 0.05
34 Mercury (Hydrargyrum) (Hg) mg/L 0.001
35 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) mg/L 1000
36 Cyanide (CN) mg/L 0.05
Organic parameters
a. Chlorinated Alkanes
37 In 1,1,1 -Trichloros µg/L 2000
38 1,2 – Dichloroethane µg/L 30
39 1,2 – Dichloroethene µg/L 50
40 Carbontetrachloride µg/L 2
41 Dichloromethane µg/L 20
42 Tetracloroeten µg/L 40
43 Tricloroeten µg/L 20
44 Vinyl clorua µg/L 0.3
b. Aromatic Hydrocarbide
45 Benzene µg/L ten
46 Etylbenzen µg/L 300
47 Phenol and its derivatives µg/L first
48 Styrene µg/L 20
49 Toluene µg/L I 700
50 Xylene µg/L 500
c. Chlorinated Benzene Group
51 1,2 – Diclorobenzen µg/L 1000
52 Monoclorobenzen µg/L 300
53 Triclorobenzen µg/L 20
d. Complex organic matter group
54 Acrylamide µg/L 0.5
55 Epiclohydrin µg/L 0.4
56 Hexacloro butadien µg/L 0.6
Parameters of plant protection chemicals
57 1,2 – Dibromo – 3 Cloropropan µg/L first
58 1,2 – Dichloropropane µg/L 40
59 1,3 – Dichloropropen µg/L 20
60 2,4-D µg/L 30
61 2,4 – DB µg/L 90
62 Alachlor µg/L 20
63 Aldicarb µg/L ten
64 Atrazine and chloro-s- triazine derivatives µg/L 100
65 Carbofuran µg/L 5
66 Chlorpyrifos µg/L 30
67 Clodane µg/L 0.2
68 Chlorotoluron µg/L 30
69 Cyanazine µg/L 0.6
70 DDT and derivatives µg/L first
71 Dichloprop µg/L 100
72 Fenoprop µg/L 9
73 Hydroxyatrazine µg/L 200
74 Isoproturon µg/L 9
75 MCPA µg/L 2
76 Mecoprop µg/L ten
77 Methoxychlor µg/L 20
78 Molinate µg/L
79 Pendimetal µg/L 20
80 Permethrin Mg/t µg/L 20
81 Propanil Uq/L µg/L 20
82 Let’s call him µg/L 2
83 Trifuralin µg/L 20
Specifications of disinfectant chemicals and by-products
84 2,4,6 – Triclorophenol µg/L 200
85 Bromate µg/L ten
86 Bromodichloromethane µg/L 60
87 Bromoform µg/L 100
88 Chloroform µg/L 300
89 Dibromoacetonitrile µg/L 70
90 Dibromochloromethane µg/L 100
91 Dichloroacetonitrlle µg/L 20
92 Dichloroacetic acid µg/L 50
93 Formaldehyde µg/L 900
94 Monochloramine µg/L 3.0
95 Monochloroacetic acid µg/L 20
96 Trichloroacetic acid µg/L 200
97 Trichloroaxetonitril µg/L first
Irradiation parameters
98 Total radioactivity α Bg/L 0.1
99 Total radioactivity β Bg/L 1.0

And according to the United Nations: “Clean water is a fundamental human need. It is not pure water, such as distilled water, but rather includes dissolved compounds that are not harmful to health. Water that is not drinkable can be made drinkable through processes such as desalination, distillation, reverse osmosis, disinfection, etc.”

The Significance of Clean Water

Water is the source of life on Earth and plays a crucial role in the water cycle. In today’s world, clean water holds increasing importance, not just for individuals but also for organizations. Here is some information to help you grasp the significance of clean water:

Approximately 70% of an infant’s body is composed of water, while it accounts for about 60% in adults. Additionally, the brain is comprised of about 85% water by weight. Within the human body, water acts as a solvent for biochemical reactions, facilitates nutrient transportation, and regulates body temperature.

Water plays an important role in the body

Water plays an important role in the body.

The Origin and Dependence of Life on Earth

Life on Earth originated and is sustained by the presence of water and its continuous cycling. In the present day, the role of clean water has grown increasingly significant, not only for individuals but also for organizations. Here are some key points to help you comprehend the importance of clean water:

It is a well-established fact that humans can survive without food for approximately two months, but the absence of water becomes life-threatening within three to four days. A mere 2% loss of water from our body leads to a 20% decline in work capacity, while a 10% loss can result in self-poisoning, and a 21% loss can even be fatal. Hence, it is crucial to maintain adequate water intake to preserve stability and balance within our bodies.

Despite the perception that water is an abundant resource due to ¾ of the Earth’s surface being covered in it, the reality is quite different. Out of this ¾, 97% constitutes saline ocean water, rendering it unfit for human use. Furthermore, within the remaining 3%, approximately 99.7% exists as frozen ice and snow.

Causes of Water Pollution

Water pollution has emerged as a pressing global issue, with several regions facing severe shortages of clean water. The following are some common causes contributing to this predicament:

Natural Causes

Various natural factors, such as rainfall, storms, floods, snowmelt, organic decay, and the seepage of animal remains into the ground, can all lead to water pollution.

Causes of water pollution

Causes of water pollution.

Water Pollution Caused by Population Growth

The exponential growth of the global population has had a profound impact on water sources worldwide. The increasing population leads to higher demands for daily necessities, food and beverages, transportation, construction, industrial production, and agriculture. Consequently, the amount of waste released into the environment rises significantly, not only affecting the natural surroundings but also posing a serious threat to the water environment.

Furthermore, a lack of awareness regarding water conservation among certain individuals and businesses exacerbates the issue and contributes to the escalation of water pollution.

Water Pollution from Medical Waste

Presently, statistics indicate that a majority of hospitals and medical facilities worldwide lack wastewater treatment systems that meet the required standards. With a large number of patients and a high demand for medical treatment, particularly in the face of emerging diseases, the volume of waste and wastewater discharged into the environment is enormous.

Causes of Pollution from Agricultural Production Processes

Agricultural activities, including farming and animal husbandry, significantly contribute to the escalating pollution of our water environment. The primary cause is the direct discharge of excess animal feed, manure, and urine into the environment without proper treatment.

Additionally, various types of plant protection products, pesticides, herbicides, and other chemicals are utilized during production, further impacting the environment and human health. These chemicals penetrate deep into the soil and groundwater, posing risks to both ecosystems and human populations.

Environmental pollution from industrial zones

Environmental pollution from industrial zones

Causes of Pollution from Industrial Activities

The causes of pollution resulting from industrial production activities have been a persistent issue. Industrial production releases a significant amount of waste, including hazardous waste, into the environment, often without proper treatment, directly into ponds, lakes, canals, and rivers. Industrial waste commonly contains a high concentration of toxic substances such as COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), SS (Suspended Solids), and heavy metals (such as Hg, Pb, Cd, As, Sb, Cr, F, etc.), which have adverse effects on water quality.

Health Hazards from Contaminated Water

Contaminated water poses health hazards to individuals through two pathways. Firstly, people may utilize polluted water sources for drinking, irrigation of crops, or aquaculture, leading to the contamination of food sources. Secondly, individuals may come into direct contact with contaminated water during their daily activities and work.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 80% of all diseases are related to water quality and environmental sanitation. Common diseases resulting from polluted water sources include diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, typhoid fever, polio, hepatitis B, parasitic infections, scabies, and a multitude of potential risks, including cancer.

Cleanliness of Common Water Sources

Well Water

The cleanliness level of several common water sources can vary. Groundwater sources, such as well water, are utilized by over 70% of rural populations. However, if left untreated, this water can contain various impurities, including heavy pollutants if the well is located near highly contaminated areas.

Groundwater has the potential to contain elements such as arsenic, boron, manganese, selenium, radon, or uranium, which are not visible to the naked eye. Therefore, the safety of well water for daily use or cooking cannot be guaranteed without proper treatment.

well water

Well water often has a fishy smell and is easily mixed with impurities

Rainwater

Rainwater is formed when water from rivers, streams, lakes, and ponds evaporates due to high temperatures, condenses into clouds, and eventually falls back to the ground as precipitation. Throughout history, people have used rainwater for daily activities like drinking, cooking, and household chores. However, the effects of industrialization, urbanization, and the growth of cities have contributed to the deterioration of rainwater quality.

Rainwater is likely to contain toxic substances from industrial emissions

Rainwater is likely to contain toxic substances from industrial emissions.

Rainwater, which is essential for sustaining life, is susceptible to pollution from emissions emitted by vehicles, industrial areas, dust, and other pollutants. These pollutants dissolve in rainwater and descend to the ground, resulting in a decline in the purity of rainwater compared to its natural state.

Bottled Water

Bottled water serves as a drinking water source that is produced according to government-established safety standards. However, it is crucial to note that more than 25% of bottled water is, in fact, purified tap water, despite the claims made by certain brands regarding its purity or being sourced from natural mineral springs. Therefore, it is important to select a reputable and dependable brand when opting for bottled water.

Look for reputable bottled water brands

Look for reputable bottled water brands.

Using Boiled Water for Cooling

Boiled water, typically sourced from tap water or well water, is commonly utilized for cooling purposes. Boiling the water helps eliminate certain bacteria present in the water due to the high temperatures. However, it is important to note that boiling water does not eliminate heavy metals. Moreover, boiled water has a limited shelf life and should not be stored overnight, as bacteria may have proliferated in it by then.

Cooled boiled water has a basic level of cleanliness, but you should not use it overnight

Cooled boiled water has a basic level of cleanliness, but you should not use it overnight.

Public Water System

The public water system is primarily treated by the water provider company to ensure its safety. Nevertheless, during the distribution process from the source to households, unforeseen circumstances can arise, leading to potential contamination of the water supply or even the introduction of heavy metals from the pipes. It is not advisable to directly consume water from the municipal supply, and it is recommended to employ a separate water filtration system to address these concerns.

machine water

Tap water should only be used for domestic purposes, not for drinking directly

Obtaining Clean Water

As mentioned earlier, common water sources vary in terms of cleanliness and associated risks. So, how can you ensure clean water for your household’s needs and maintain health safety? Here are some water purification methods you can consider:

Boiling

Boiling water is a traditional and effective method that yields immediate results. This technique relies on high temperatures to kill bacteria present in the water. After boiling, allow the water to cool and let any sediment settle before using it. However, it’s important to note that boiled water should not be left overnight. One drawback of this method is that it requires a significant amount of time to prepare, boil, and cool the water, and its shelf life is also limited.

Boil water

Boiling water helps you clean water quickly.

Disinfection with Chlorine

Chlorine is a familiar method used for water treatment, particularly in treating tap water. It has the capability to clean water and eliminate bacteria. However, water treated with chlorine may have a slight unpleasant odor.

Utilizing a Whole House Water Filtration System

A whole house water filtration system is designed to filter water at its source, ensuring clean water for various household activities like bathing, washing, and cooking. This system effectively removes impurities and contaminants. It is important to note that this system provides clean water for household purposes but is not suitable for direct consumption.

Water purifier

Water purifier.

Instead, RO or Nano water filtration systems can fulfill this task. With advanced technology, these filtration systems can provide households with safe drinking water that meets regulated standards. Installing these types of water filtration systems at home ensures the health and safety of individuals.

Methods to Safeguard Clean Water

To prevent severe water pollution problems in the future, it is crucial to take action starting from today. Here are some ways that each of us can contribute to protecting our water sources and encourage collective efforts to safeguard the environment and our well-being:

  1. Raise community awareness
  2. Conserve clean water
  3. Properly dispose of waste
  4. Sort and dispose of household waste correctly
  5. Implement appropriate treatment of household wastewater
  6. Transition towards sustainable agriculture practices
  7. Minimize the use of food packaging bags
  8. Utilize recyclable products
  9. Reduce plastic waste
  10. Avoid pouring cooking oil directly into the sink
  11. Limit the use of cleaning chemicals
  12. Avoid the use of pesticides

The above encompasses the comprehensive information about the definition of clean water and the challenges surrounding its availability in our society. This issue not only concerns the community but also each individual. As clean water becomes increasingly scarce, it is crucial to take action today to prevent living in an environment plagued by waste and pollution.

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