7 Strange eating disorders occur in people that few people know

Eating disorders are divided into different types based on clinical manifestations. Currently, there are 7 recognized eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, rumination disorder, etc.

What is an eating disorder?

Eating disorder is a serious mental disorder with varied manifestations. This term refers to abnormalities related to thinking, feeling, and eating behavior. Eating disorders have serious effects on mental and physical health and can sometimes be life-threatening.

Eating disorders are now recognized as an official mental illness in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-5). According to statistics, there are about 30 million people in the United States and 4% of the population of Australia are facing this disease.

Eating disorders have diverse manifestations and are divided into different types based on clinical symptoms. Since 1990, the rate of people suffering from this disease has increased six times and is constantly increasing. The disease occurs mainly in women with 4 times the rate of men and usually has its onset in adolescence or early adulthood.

Learn about eating disorders

As mentioned, eating disorders are divided into different types based on clinical presentation. Currently, the DSM-5 has recognized the following 7 eating disorders:

1. Anorexia nervosa (Anorexia Nervosa)

Anorexia nervosa or anorexia nervosa (Anorexia Nervosa) is the best known eating disorder. This type of eating disorder is characterized by minimal food tolerance and almost no consumption of high-calorie food groups.

People with anorexia nervosa always think they need to lose weight even when they are severely underweight. The patient has a fear of weight gain, obesity, and an extreme pursuit of a slim figure.

eating disorder

Anorexia nervosa is the best known eating disorder today

The distorted perception of the body makes the patient not eat or only tolerate very little food, making the body alarmingly thin. If left untreated, some patients face serious physical problems and sometimes even death from fasting for too long.

Anorexia nervosa usually has its onset in adolescence and early adulthood. The rate of women suffering from this disease is higher than that of men due to strict social concepts about body shape and weight.

Signs of anorexia nervosa:

  • Distorted perception of body shape, always thinking that you are overweight and must lose weight even though your weight is below average.
  • The patient constantly observes the body in the mirror and pursues in an extreme way the slim, slim figure.
  • Eat almost nothing or eat only a very small amount of food. Patients should limit the maximum amount of food tolerated during the day, and never use food groups with a lot of calories.
  • Due to fasting and undereating, all patients with anorexia nervosa are underweight. Some are emaciated and malnourished to an alarming extent.
  • People with anorexia nervosa have a fear of gaining weight and being obese. This fear persists for so long that the patient is always in a state of anxiety, depression and suffering.
  • Patients may or may not have food elimination behaviors such as self-induced vomiting, use of laxatives, etc.

Of the eating disorders, anorexia nervosa is the most recognizable because the patient’s weight is always at an alarming level. Moreover, due to the maximum restriction of food intake, patients face many physical health problems such as weakness, anemia, organ failure, hair loss, brittle nails, broken nails and even death. death.

2. Binge Eating Disorder (BED)

Binge eating disorder or binge eating disorder is one of the most common eating disorders. In contrast to people with anorexia nervosa, people with this disorder often binge eat (tolerating large amounts of food in a very short time). During bulimia, the patient is unable to stop his or her eating behavior.

Patients often eat to the point of discomfort and, after eating large amounts of food, often feel ashamed, depressed, guilty, and self-loathing. Binge eating episodes are often repeated at least once a week and last for 3 months or more.

Similar to anorexia nervosa, bulimia begins in adolescence and early adulthood. If left untreated, this disease will develop gradually over time causing serious health effects.

eating disorder

Binge eating disorder is characterized by episodes of binge eating accompanied by feelings of shame and guilt about one’s own eating behaviour.

Signs of binge eating disorder:

  • Patients often have bouts of binge eating characterized by short-term tolerance of large amounts of food. Eating faster than usual, eating uncomfortably full even when not feeling hungry.
  • Patients often eat in private places to avoid prying eyes.
  • Feelings of loss of control and stress during binge eating episodes. In fact, some patients are conscious of their overeating but are unable to stop their eating behavior.
  • After each bout of binge eating, the patient falls into a state of shame, depression, guilt, and suffering because of unscientific eating behavior.
  • People with bulimia nervosa do NOT engage in food elimination behaviors to compensate for overeating such as self-induced vomiting, laxative use, diuretics, diet or excessive exercise.
  • Most patients with bulimia nervosa are overweight and obese.
  • People around may notice that the patient is uncomfortable eating with others and constantly hoarding large amounts of food in the house.

People with bulimia nervosa are prone to chronic diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, etc. Patients may also suffer from psychological and mental disorders due to sadness, pain, and depression. prolonged suffering and shame.

3. Bulimia bulimia (Bulimia Nervosa)

Bulimia bulimia is easily confused with bulimia nervosa, so it is also known as bulimia nervosa. Similar to bulimia, people often tolerate small amounts of food for a short period of time. However, the patient will then engage in food-rejection behaviors such as taking laxatives, diuretics, frantic exercise, dieting, or self-induced vomiting. Because of the practice of eliminating food, most patients with bulimia have a normal weight.

People with bulimia also have a distorted perception of their body, are overly obsessed with their weight, and always consider themselves ugly. Patients often have low self-esteem in appearance, so they tend to shy away from communication, have few friends and rarely participate in social activities.

eating disorder

Bulimia bulimia is defined when the patient binge eats, then performs food elimination behaviors such as vomiting, dieting, etc.

Signs of bulimia / bulimia:

  • Have episodes of binge eating (uncontrollable eating, fast eating, and tolerance of large amounts of food even though you’re not really hungry)
  • After bouts of binge eating, the patient performs compensatory behavior to eliminate the food intake. Common behaviors include self-induced vomiting, extreme exercise, fasting, the use of laxatives, diuretics, and some possibly weight loss medications.
  • Have a fear of gaining weight despite being at a normal weight.
  • Reduced self-esteem, low self-esteem about weight and body shape.
  • There is a fear of gaining weight and being obese.
  • Believing that he is overweight, his body is not good, he is often embarrassed, miserable, and feels guilty about his binge eating behavior.

Patients with bulimia nervosa are of normal weight, so they do not face obesity or diabetes. However, food elimination behaviors such as the use of laxatives, diuretics, and self-induced vomiting can lead to many serious effects such as swelling of the salivary glands, sore throat, acid reflux, digestive disorders. chemistry, electrolyte disorders, poor health, etc.

4. Avoidant Food Intake Disorder

Avoidant Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is a new term used to replace the old term, eating disorder in infants and young children. Unlike the above eating disorders, ARFID occurs mainly in infants and young children. In particular, this disease has an equal incidence in men and women.

Food restriction/avoidance disorder is characterized by eating very little food and avoiding certain foods. People with this disease often have no interest, even aversion and avoid eating.

People with this disease are often overly sensitive to factors such as taste, scent, roughness, softness, etc. of the food. This causes the person to avoid eating and to tolerate only small amounts of food. Eating avoidance behavior was not related to concerns about weight and appearance.

eating disorder

Avoidance/restrictive disorder is a common eating disorder in children

Recognizing food avoidance/restriction disorder:

  • Eats very little and may avoid certain foods.
  • Patients are often malnourished and underweight because they tolerate very little food during the day.
  • People with food avoidance/restriction disorder are often uncomfortable eating with others.
  • Often have to supplement nutrition through tubes or supplements.
  • Eating habits make it difficult for patients to integrate themselves and often live a closed life, with little communication with those around them.

Many people mistake the avoidance/restrictive disorder to receive food as picky eating in young children. However, this disease is completely different from normal eating behaviors. The picky eaters still provide enough calories for the body even though the food group is not too diverse. Meanwhile, people with food avoidance/restriction disorder often eat very little, lack interest and even have an aversion to eating.

5. Bad Eating Syndrome (Pica Syndrome)

Binge eating syndrome (Pica syndrome) is a common eating disorder in children and adolescents. In addition, pregnant women and people with psychological problems can also have this syndrome.

Pica syndrome is characterized by ingesting non-food items such as rocks, pebbles, hair, wool, cloth, paper, soap, dirt, soil, laundry detergent, etc. products will lead to poisoning, infections and ulcers of the stomach and intestines. Severe cases can be fatal due to intestinal perforation, gastrointestinal bleeding and severe malnutrition.

eating disorder

Pica syndrome is a condition in which the patient has cravings for things other than food

Signs of bad eating syndrome / Pica syndrome:

  • There are cravings for non-food things that are repeated over a long period of time.
  • Long-term tolerance of non-food items can cause malnutrition, weight loss, weakness, and sometimes death from poisoning and severe infections.
  • Occurs mainly in children with autism and people with mental disorders

6. Rumination Disorder

Rumination disorder is a newly recognized eating disorder in recent years. This disease is characterized by reflux of food, the patient often chews and swallows or vomits completely. Chewing will occur within 30 minutes after a meal.

Rumination disorder occurs mainly in infants and children and can occasionally occur in adults. In infants, this condition may resolve on its own after 3-12 months. However, children and adults with rumination disorder require therapeutic intervention.

The phenomenon of regurgitation and chewing of food makes people uncomfortable when eating and drinking with others. In addition, rumination disorder also makes patients afraid to eat and tolerate only very little food. People with this disease often face low birth weight, malnutrition, children often have delayed growth in height and weight.

eating disorder

Rumination disorder is a recently recognized form of eating disorder

Signs of rumination disorder:

  • Vomit, then spit or chew and swallow within 30 minutes of the meal.
  • Bad breath due to frequent regurgitation of food.
  • Weight loss, low weight and malnutrition.

Rumination disorder is diagnosed only when regurgitation occurs for 1 month or more. In addition, this condition must be differentiated from conditions such as dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

7. Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders (OSFED)

Other eating disorders (OSFED) are defined when a patient has behavioral, thought, and emotional abnormalities in eating but does not have enough symptoms to make the above diagnosis. Typically, OSFED will be more severe than typical eating disorders.

eating disorder

In addition to typical forms, eating disorders also include other forms such as night eating syndrome, purging disorder, etc.

Other eating disorders are divided into 3 categories including:

  • Purging Disorder: Purging Disorder is characterized by persistent food elimination behaviors such as excessive exercise, use of laxatives, diuretics, and self-induced vomiting. , … for the purpose of weight control and body maintenance. However, people with this condition often do not have binge eating behaviors.
  • Night Eating Syndrome (NES): Night eating syndrome is one of the less common eating disorders. As the name suggests, people with this disease often have a habit of eating a lot at night (especially foods that are high in sugar and calories). Patients often feel ashamed of their nocturnal behavior but cannot stop it. People with this condition also have a significant preoccupation with being overweight or obese, and are constantly concerned about their appearance.
  • Other eating disorders: This group is not covered in the DSM-5 but is still mentioned in some literature. Other eating disorders is a term that refers to all conditions that present an eating disorder but do not meet the criteria for making the above diagnoses.

Eating disorders have serious effects on physical and mental health. In some cases, patients can die from long-term fasting, severe electrolyte disturbances, or poisoning from non-food intolerances. Although the cause of the disease is unclear, aggressive treatment can reduce abnormal eating behaviors and help people develop healthy eating habits.

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