Premenstrual syndrome: Causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) includes symptoms that occur in the second half of the menstrual cycle (after ovulation) that cause a lot of discomfort for women. Their quality of life was also affected, making many female friends very worried about their health. But due to the fear of going to the hospital, many of you still try to endure it, but can’t find any solution for you. Let’s learn more about Premenstrual Syndrome with

Overview of the disease Premenstrual syndrome

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) covers a wide range of psychological, physiological, and behavioral disturbances in women about one to two weeks before the onset of the menstrual cycle.

Although this syndrome is not life-threatening, it should not be subjective. Because if you don’t pay attention to timely monitoring and treatment, the disease can progress more seriously, leading to many physical and mental disorders. This makes it difficult for you to control your emotions, affecting the married life, family and social relationships of women.

Premenstrual syndrome causes many discomforts for women
Premenstrual syndrome causes many discomforts for women

Premenstrual symptoms

Premenstrual syndrome has many symptoms and manifests at different levels depending on the location of each person. Although accounting for a small percentage, this syndrome can progress so severely that it disrupts a woman’s normal activities.

Common premenstrual symptoms that you should watch out for include:

Change the taste

Food cravings can be a sign of PMS. Many people may have a sudden craving for a particular food. Science has yet to explain specifically what causes this symptom.

However, others may have the exact opposite situation. They complain that they feel anorexia, do not want to eat the food that they usually love

Digestive disorders

Digestive disorders have many causes, and can also be a sign of this syndrome. You may feel bloated, constipated, or have diarrhea.

Acne breakouts

This is one of the most common symptoms of Premenstrual syndrome. The reason may be due to hormonal changes that make the skin secrete more sebum. Too much sebum will clog pores, causing acne to appear.

Body aches

You may feel pain in many places, including headaches, back pain, joint pain, and a feeling of tightness in your chest. But it is most common in the abdomen and lower back.

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Emotional disturbance

The most unpredictable influence of Premenstrual syndrome What most worry about are emotional and behavioral changes.

You may feel angry, upset, and irritable.

In addition, feelings of sadness, anxiety, alienation, and depression may be present.

Besides, your emotions are also more sensitive, easily irritated, cry easily or overreact.

These emotions often appear before the menstrual cycle.

More seriously, your memory and concentration may decline during this period.

You may also have insomnia, take a short nap and then wake up…

Change sex drive

In some cases, PMS can alter the need for sex. Many people have a decreased sex drive and avoid sex. If this goes on for a long time without paying attention to find out the cause, it will lead to unnecessary conflicts in married life.

Other symptoms

Many people may feel tired, lethargic, and powerless before their period. Others have swollen limbs and weight gain.

Most of these symptoms last for 1-2 weeks, before the start of the menstrual cycle and disappear after the end of the menstrual cycle.

Premenstrual syndrome can alter sex drive
Premenstrual syndrome can alter sex drive

Causes of Premenstrual Syndrome

Currently, science is still unable to explain specifically and clearly the exact cause of Premenstrual syndrome.

But it is possible to identify an association of this syndrome with a decrease in the levels of two sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, in the weeks before the start of the menstrual cycle.

In addition, another factor that leads to PMS can be a chemical change in the brain or a deficiency in the amount of vitamins and minerals needed by the body.

Factors that make this syndrome worse include: eating salty foods, drinking alcoholic beverages (beer, wine) or caffeinated drinks.

Subjects at risk of Premenstrual Syndrome

About 75% of women may experience symptoms of this syndrome at some point in their lives.

Less than 5% of women of childbearing age will develop a more severe form of Premenstrual Syndrome, known as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).

Some people are at higher risk of PMS, including:

  • People who have been pregnant 1 time or more
  • People with a history of mental disorders, such as depression or postpartum depression.
  • Having a family member with depression also increases the risk of having this syndrome
  • People who are inactive, do not exercise
  • People with excessive stress
  • Diet lacking in important substances: vitamin B6, calcium and magnesium
  • People who absorb too much caffeine

Diagnostic Measures of Premenstrual Syndrome

There aren’t any tests that can help diagnose PMS. Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms, including when they occurred and how much they affect your life.

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You may have Premenstrual syndrome if your symptoms:

  • Occurs in the five days before menstruation for at least three consecutive menstrual cycles
  • Ends within four days of your period starting
  • It interferes with your daily life, preventing you from enjoying or doing some normal activities.

Monitor the signs you have and their severity for several months. Write down your symptoms each day on a calendar or with an app on your phone. And remember to bring this information with you when you visit your doctor.

Premenstrual syndrome treatments

Non-drug measures

Exercise regularly

Exercise can help you improve your mood and dispel fatigue. Note that you need to exercise regularly and regularly. Not only when symptoms of Premenstrual syndrome appear. Set yourself a goal of at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise most days of the week.

Choose healthy food

Foods rich in B vitamins have the ability to fight this syndrome. Whole grains are also rich in B vitamins, making them a perfect choice for alleviating the discomfort of symptoms.

Foods that contain complex carbohydrates, such as whole grains, are rich in fiber. So it can control blood sugar, reduce cravings and stabilize mood.

Avoid unhealthy foods

Women should avoid consuming the following foods:

  • Salt: A high diet can increase symptoms of bloating.
  • Caffeine: Caffeinated foods make you feel uncomfortable.
  • Sugar: Too much sugar can make cravings worse.
  • Alcohol: can have a bad effect on mood…

Get enough sleep

Try to get about 8 hours of sleep every night. Sleep deprivation has been linked to depression and anxiety, making symptoms like mood swings worse.

Getting enough sleep improves symptoms of premenstrual syndrome
Getting enough sleep improves symptoms of premenstrual syndrome

Find out how to reduce stress

Premenstrual syndrome can cause stress, anxiety, irritability, so you need to find ways to deal with this situation. Chatting with friends or journaling can help. Others find yoga, meditation, and massage to be effective ways to relieve stress and make the mind more relaxed.

No smoking

In one large study, female smokers were found to have more symptoms and more severe symptoms than non-smokers.


Over-the-counter drugs

Over-the-counter pain relievers are easily available at most drugstores. These drugs can relieve physical disorders such as headaches, back pain, tightness in the chest. These drugs include:

  • Ibuprofen
  • Naproxen
  • Aspirin

Taking an over-the-counter pain reliever right before your period starts helps to reduce pain and bleeding during your period.

Prescription drugs

These medications require a prescription from a doctor and can improve symptoms if over-the-counter medications don’t work.

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These drugs include:

  • Birth control pills
  • Antidepressants
  • Diuretic
  • Anti-anxiety medication

All drugs have risks and side effects when used. It is necessary to consult a doctor before proceeding with treatment.

When to visit the hospital?

If PMS is making you so bad that you have thoughts of harming yourself, call 911 or see your doctor right away.

In addition, you should also go to the hospital immediately if the symptoms adversely affect work and daily activities. Because that signals a more severe condition of the syndrome.

Most women can get it Premenstrual syndrome at one point in life. Do not be too worried because in most cases, this syndrome is not life-threatening. But it should also not be subjective because it can be complicated, affecting quality of life and social relationships. Keeping a calm attitude, paying moderate attention to symptoms, seeking medical help and persisting in treatment, exercise can improve symptoms, help you live a healthy and happy life.

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